Basic Types of AC-DC Power Supplies

When it comes to choosing an AC-DC power source for your needs, there are a lot of possibilities. Electrical technology advancements have made it possible to create AC-DC power supplies that are both compact and capable of meeting even the most demanding application requirements. With that in mind, how do you pick the best one?

You can choose from three different types of AC-DC power supplies, depending on your application and power conversion requirements:

  1. AC-DC Power Supply Adapters

Almost everyone has seen an adapter-style AC-DC power supply, sometimes known as a “AC Adapter,” which is extensively used for laptops, computer screens, televisions, and other household and business gadgets.

External power supplies that are often encased in a compact, sealed container for safety and aesthetic reasons are known as adapters. If you want to convert AC power to DC for portable devices or residential and business equipment, you may need an adapter-style AC-DC power supply.

  1. Open Frame Power Supplies

When the AC-DC power supply components are mounted on a circuit board without a protective cage or enclosure, it is known as an open frame power supply. The physical protection required is usually provided by the enclosure of the electrical equipment.

When it comes to AC-DC conversion, open frame power supplies are the most common choice. They’re very popular for a variety of reasons:

Pen frame power supply can be simply installed in a convenient and secure location within the chassis of any electrical device.

  1. Industrial PC Power Supplies

Adapters and open frame power supplies are both appropriate for low-power applications, but what if you have an industrial PC with more stringent AC-DC conversion requirements?

You should limit your search to industrial PC power supplies to suit those requirements. They’re AC-DC power supplies designed exclusively for PCs in industrial situations, with a wide range of wattage options.

Aside from getting an AC-DC power supply with higher wattages, you should also consider the following reasons:

  • Extreme operating environments – industrial power supplies can cope with extreme temperatures and have a high MTBF (mean-time before failure) rating;
  • High energy efficiency – energy efficiency can reduce energy consumption, minimise environmental stress from energy production and use, and lead to competitive yet inexpensive goods and service operating costs.

When choosing a power supply, there are several requirements that need to be considered. The power requirements of the load or circuit, including voltage and current; safety features such as voltage and current limits to protect the load; physical size and efficiency; and noise immunity of the system.

Looking for the best AC-DC power supplies? EP-Power together with BriPower aims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For questions and inquiries, you may send us an email at: or call us at +6564547877.

Understanding The Basics of AC-DC Power Supply

An AC-DC power supply, often known as an adapter, is a device that takes electricity from a grid and converts it to a different current, frequency, and voltage. AC-DC power supplies are required to give the correct amount of power to an electrical component.

AC-DC power supplies provide electricity to equipment that are usually powered by batteries or have no other source of power. Here’s everything you need to know about AC-DC power supplies.

Introduction to Power Supply

Electric power is the backbone of any electronic system, and the power source is the supplier of the system. Choosing the right source can be the difference between a device that is operating at the optimum level and a device that may be producing inconsistent results.  In addition to  alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) power supplies, DC / DC converters are also available. If your system already has a DC power supply, a DC / DC converter may be a better design choice.

In other words, ACDC power supplies convert one type of electricity (AC “alternating current” to DC “direct current”. Most people definitely use electrical equipment that requires both types of electricity every day. 

 For example, a car needs a 12V DC power supply to operate. And  homes and businesses are powered by AC power. You may need to convert AC power to DC power. Therefore, an ACDC power supply is required.

  • AC Power

AC or Alternating Current is the same old form of strength provided from the electric grid to houses and businesses. It’s known as AC due to the waveform that the electrons take. Sometimes, the cutting-edge reverses and adjustments its magnitude.

AC energy`s voltage and frequencies fluctuate among regions; for example, the USA makes use of a hundred and twenty volts at a frequency of 60 Hz. Across the Atlantic, the UK makes use of 230 volts at a frequency of fifty Hz.

Because AC energy acts in waves, it could journey plenty similarly than DC energy, for this reason why it is utilised in electric grid structures throughout the world. While many electric gadgets use main-provided AC energy, others want changing to DC strength.

  • DC Power

Direct current is another type of electricity used in a variety of applications. Unlike AC, the path an electron takes in DC  is linear. You can see that electrical equipment such as batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and alternators use direct current instead of alternating current. One of the advantages of direct current over alternating current is that it provides a consistent voltage supply to electrical equipment. However, the disadvantage of direct current is that it is not suitable for power grids because it can only flow over short distances. Most electronic items require DC electricity due to the `clean` delivery of power. Of course, mains electricity gets provided as AC power, so an ACDC power supply converts the electricity to DC power.  All ACDC power supplies have rectifiers built into them and transformers to raise or lower voltage levels where necessary. Rectifiers are the components in power supplies that convert AC power to DC.  DC electricity dates back to the late 19th century and is most commonly associated with early electrical pioneers like Thomas Edison. 

An AC-DC power supply is necessary for our electronic devices nowadays. You can find them in various formats, such as external adapters that plug into laptop computers, and internal converters like in all electronics from DVD players to medical equipment. Each AC-DC power supply has different design configurations, but the basic principles remain the same. For instance, an AC-DC power supply will have one or more transformers, rectifiers, and filters.

If you’re looking for the best place to get your AC-DC power supplies, EP-Power together with BriPower aims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For questions and inquiries, you may send us an email at: or call us at +6564547877.

Healthcare Industry: Medical Equipment Highlight

If you’ve visited a medical facility over the last few years, chances are you interacted with various medical equipment – directly or indirectly. From fans to medical imaging equipment to pumps, these medical equipment use energy to operate.

Although these medical equipment does not consume much of the healthcare facility’s power, there are opportunities to improve their energy consumption. But how exactly can they be used in such a way that they conserve energy?

The Building Technologiessearch.

Opportunity for enhancing the efficiency of energy consumption in hospitals

Based on the research study, medical equipment’s nighttime power consumption and variability in the medical imaging equipment load profiles present an opportunity for medical stakeholders to evaluate device operational modes to see if they can make enhancements. Specifically, there is the opportunity to enhance “idle” mode energy efficiency and built-in controls for tr Office partnered with two hospitals to research healthcare energy end-use consumption – to answer this question. Below are some conclusions that were drawn from the transition between operational modes.

For instance, to improve power efficiency, there’s a need to conduct assessments to determine whether medical equipment should be powered down during non-business hours. Also, manufacturers should design controls that minimise idle power while ensuring that the facility is emergency-ready and can respond fast to disasters.

If you’re looking for the best place to get your Medical Equipment power supplies, you’re in the right place! EP-Power together with Artesyn aims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For enquiries, you may send us an email at: or give us a call at +6564547877. 

Comparison of string inverters and microinverters

Solar inverters provide electricity to your home by converting the direct current (DC) that is generated by solar panels into alternate current (AC). Microinverters as well as string inverters perform the same function as a solar homeowner but go about it differently. With the continuous evolution of inverter technology, homeowners can harness the maximum amount of energy from their solar PV systems. We explain string innovations in this article to help you decide the best approach to integrate them into your solar energy system.


How do string inverters work?

String inverters (also known as “central inverters”) are standalone equipment located near your main service panel and electricity meter. The size of an individual solar installation typically dictates the number of inverters, which may be one or two. The solar panels in a “series string” usually come in sets of six to twelve. SMA is a manufacturer of string inverters. The company behind the solar panels is SMA.

The advantages of string inverters

An inverter for AC power conversion is all you need to set up a solar string since only one is needed. When something goes wrong with a solar system, the inverter is likely to fail – making troubleshooting relatively easy. Many microinverters are more expensive than string inverters since they require more labor hours to install. Solar panels are not connected. String inverters are less likely to be improperly connected.

String inverters have some disadvantages

Solar energy systems are not cheap to add rapid shutdown capabilities. Depending on what regulations your area adheres to, you will either need additional labor or wiring to ensure your system meets the requirements. String inverters require that solar panels are wired in series and if one panel fails, the whole string is affected. Microinverters have a warranty of between 8 and 12 years, whereas string inverters have a warranty of 25 years.

How does a microinverter work?

A microinverter is the same as a string inverter but is installed beneath each solar panel. Solar panels and micro inverters can each contribute as much power as they can. Although electricity is not converted into AC behind each panel, the work is still done at the string in the other part of the circuit with power optimizers. Microinverters from Enphase have been on the market since 2009 and have become an integral part of their thriving business.

Advantages of microinverters

To prevent high voltage electric shocks while first responders or firefighters are on roofs or servicing power lines, new electrical codes require rapid shutdown of solar systems. Embedded in each microinverter module is the capability of the rapid shutdown. When there are multiple angles on a solar system, such as some panels facing south, some facing east, and some facing west, microinverters are the way to go. You should use micro inverters if you have shade issues from trees or a large chimney.


Deficiencies of microinverters

Microinverters are primarily disadvantageous due to their high cost. Typical string inverters on a 5kW residential solar installation cost $1,000 or more. It’s not as easy as putting a new string on the side of your house if one of your solar panels fails. Shake roofing materials may not be a good choice if you live in a storm-prone area and have an old wooden structure.

How do Microinverters and String Inverters compare?

SolarReviews remains skeptical of claims that microinverter failure rates are very low. Manufacturers advertise the ability to monitor each panel as a benefit (and it is), but do not include the monitoring that would allow the customer to do so. The failure of only one or two inverters can be difficult to diagnose using only system-wide monitoring data. Inverters are generally easy to notice when they fail because they stop the whole system.


If you’re looking for the best place to get your inverters, you’re in the right place! EP-Power aims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For inquiries, you may send us an email at: or give us a call at +6564547877. 


Electric Vehicle Charging Framework in Singapore


Electric cars first appeared in 1820, however, the limitations of power didn’t bring them to the limelight until the 20th century. Governments of several countries have shown great interest in adopting electric vehicles. As early as mid-2017, BlueSG Pte Ltd, a Bolloré Group subsidiary, will offer electric car-sharing services in Singapore. Additionally, electric vehicles reduce noise pollution, have low maintenance costs for consumers, make good use of vehicle space, and are easy to drive.

Despite the above developments, several factors still obscure the prospects of EV. A few of these factors are the battery life, charging time, availability of charging stations, the cost for charging, and safety. EVs might be required to be charged in scenarios where they still have reasonable charge and these scenarios could put the EV driver in a dilemma as the margin is limited compared to vehicles powered by internal combustion engines (ICEs)

Singapore is unique because it covers a total area of 719.1 km2 and averages about 50 km per day in car travel. EV charging stations in most countries are concentrated around specific neighborhoods and hence the cost of charging (uniform charging or dynamic charging) could significantly affect the EV user behavior. Electricity companies may charge different rates during non-peak times as well as during peak hours. Singapore does not have dedicated charging points since most people live in public flats.

EV Battery and Charger

Table 1 compares the battery power capacity, range, cost per km, and charging time for typical EVs currently available in the market for typical EV vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries require the least maintenance, are less susceptible to memory effect, and require no scheduled cycling. For subcompact EVs, the batteries have an energy capacity of 12 – 18 kWh, for mid-sized family sedans, 22 – 50 kWh, and for luxury models, such as those from Tesla, 60 – 85 kWh. The charging rate of the battery depends on the type of charger used and the initial charge in the battery.

Most EVs or EV users have smartphones that can be enabled to communicate with charging networks. The EVs could also be equipped with built-in communication modules. The charging network would be responsible for sharing the parameters in Table 3 while maintaining privacy. This information may also be used by EV manufacturers to examine their batteries and performance. Charging stations can analyze the charging patterns of EV users in order to adjust their pricing and business models.

Charging Station Selection Criteria

Our method of calculating travel times based on the Google Maps API allows us to rank the five easiest charging stations according to their travel times. Pricing factors affect the charging station criteria. Table 3 lists the parameters that we used when simulating an EV charging network with JAVA programming. We used the standard Singaporean exchange rate, which is S$3.99 to S$5.99. Google Maps was also used to calculate distance and estimate the charging station’s location.


With the parameters listed in Table 3, we used JAVA programming to simulate the EVs and the 30 charging stations. Google Maps was used to estimate the distance between the EV and the charging stations as well as the time it would take to reach the charging station under realistic traffic conditions. We randomly assigned p! Singapore taxi rates with a flag down fee of S$3.40 and a per-kilometer fee of S$0.44 range from 5.99 to 14.99 Singapore dollars. Figure 1 illustrates EV charging stations in Singapore.

If you’re looking for the best place to get your power supplies, you’re in the right place! EP-Power together with Magna-Power aims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For inquiries, you may send us an email at: or give us a call at +6564547877. 

What is Deep Discharge? How To Build A Simple Battery Protection Circuit

Batteries you use in a variety of projects, from uninterruptible power supplies to remote-controlled cars, may be damaged by deep discharging. Learn about deep discharging and how to protect your batteries. Here you will find helpful terms and a simple circuit that can protect your battery-powered projects from malfunctioning.

What is Deep Discharging?

A deep discharge occurs when the capacity of a battery has been exhausted. Battery cells have a set voltage at which they cease to function. This voltage is called the cut-off point. Exhausting deep causes 1.5 to 2 times as much electric discharge as the battery can support. As a result of over-discharging, the battery will have increased internal resistance, making charging difficult. The price tag on these batteries is high.

Depth of Discharge

According to the Depth of Discharge chart, the battery has used a percentage of its capacity as compared to its total capacity. If the batteries’ full capacity is 15kWh and you discharge 12kWh, that’s 96%. As a result, a deep discharge is something you should avoid. A deep cycle battery is a battery that is designed for deep discharge regularly. Power storage, UPS, traffic signals, and remote applications use these batteries.

Deep Discharge Protection Circuits

Identification of the battery’s cut-off voltage is necessary for deep discharge protection. A Zener diode in reverse bias condition will act as an open circuit when its cathode voltage falls below the breakdown voltage. It starts conduction when the cathode voltage is above its breakdown voltage. A switch disconnects the load from the battery, thus disconnecting the battery from the device. When the batteries reach the cut-off voltage level, we need to design a circuit to turn on a switch.

Protection Circuit for 12V Batteries

We will build a protection circuit to protect the load and battery from over-discharging, we will build a protection circuit. To adjust the resistance to achieve the desired range of operation, we’ll use a similar circuit but change the resistance. The diode is no longer conduction and there will be no base voltage, which effectively disconnects the battery from the load when the voltage is below 8V. We hope to use this circuit to protect the battery and the load from overcharging.

ICs Used for Over-Discharge Protection

Cs make our work easier when we are dealing with a complex circuit and have to regulate the power for the load. It is possible to replace several circuits with one integrated circuit. Integral circuits are capable of simultaneously monitoring and controlling power flow. Two integrated circuits can handle this application.

The LTC2960

A high voltage multi-cell battery monitor, the LTC2960 IC provides two input voltages. If the battery voltage is low, the RST pin in the IC signals a low voltage by going high. A user can provide the IC with either inverting or non-inverting inputs. Portable battery-powered equipment, batteries, and other systems commonly use this IC.

The LT1495

LT1495s are low-power op-amps that are capable of delivering very low supply currents. The supply can be fitted to 3V, 5V, or +- 15V. With a voltage range of 2.2V-36V, this device makes it possible to regulate a wide range of voltages. This IC offers several advantages over other protection circuits, including the fact that the circuit made by the IC uses less than 4.5miliamps of current. The device also protects batteries up to 18V.

How to Charge an Over-Discharged Battery

When a battery is overcharged, its internal resistance increases. Battery capacity can be lost twice as a result of this, so the battery has a hard time being recharged. When the voltage drops below 3.0V, severe damage occurs. Check the battery periodically for heat buildup and do not leave it unattended. In this situation, charges can be reduced. During puffing or overheating, it is impossible to restore the battery. Charges from batteries follow a similar pattern.

If you’re looking for the best place to get your power supplies, you’re in the right place! EP-Power aims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For inquiries, you may send us an email at: or give us a call at +6564547877. 

Voltage sags are the most common cause of poor power quality. They are also the most costly. The more complex a plant is, the more voltage sags it is susceptible to, such as in-process controllers, PLCs, variable speed drives, and robots. A sag in voltage can cause relays and contactors in motor starters to fail, resulting in a shutdown.

Voltage Sags: What causes them?

Voltage sags are the most common cause of poor power quality. They are also the most costly. The more complex a plant is, the more voltage sags it is susceptible to, such as in-process controllers, PLCs, variable speed drives, and robots. A sag in voltage can cause relays and contactors in motor starters to fail, resulting in a shutdown.

Power quality is mainly affected by voltage sags. In addition to being the most expensive, they also have the longest lead times.

Complex industrial equipment, such as process controllers, PLCs, adjustable speed drives, and robots, is more sensitive to voltage sags as their complexity increases. As a result of voltage sags, motor starter relays and contactors break down, causing downtime.

What are voltage sags?

According to IEEE, voltage sag refers to a short-term reduction in voltage. At 60 Hz, the magnitude of the voltage reduction is between 10% and 90% of the normal root mean square voltage (RMS). By definition, a voltage sag event lasts less than 1 minute and more than 8 milliseconds, or a half cycle of 60-Hz electrical power. Undervoltage, transients, voltage unbalance among phases, voltage fluctuations, and electrical noise are also power quality issues affecting voltage amplitude and duration.

What causes voltage sags?

In both directions of an electric meter, power quality issues exist. It is typically the local utility that is blamed for voltage sags. The equipment within a plant is often to blame for voltage sag events. Switching operations are the most common human-created events. Human-created events, like switching operations, also constitute the majority of natural events. Even if the problem is caused by sags in power meters or other power quality issues, it’s difficult to determine the source of the issue.

Trees falling onto power lines
Construction workers digging into buried cables
Squirrels and rodents
Equipment failures
Traffic accidents.

During voltage sag, there can be a difference in individual phase voltages and an accompanying phase-angle shift. The most common cause of sags is a single-line-to-ground fault (SLGF). Double and three-phase symmetrical faults are rare, occurring less than 20% of the time. Users beyond a 100-mile radius of the causing event can be affected by voltage sag on the grid. In some cases, a large motor can also cause voltage sags within the plant.

Detecting voltage sags

Monitoring power quality can detect voltage fluctuations, surges, interruptions, and other issues related to power quality. Power is measured as it enters a facility and compared with accepted standards. Systems that provide web-enabled power monitoring provide information on total harmonic distortion (THD), voltage, power factor, current demand, voltage unbalance, voltage sag, voltage swell, and alarms for multiple locations. Using one browser, a company in central Tennessee can monitor its facilities in Mexico, Canada, and across the country.

Simulation devices

Typically, the utility is responsible for sag, Undervoltage, and interruption events that occur outside the plant. Contacting the utility should be made when power quality problems occur, but when they occur within the plant, plant personnel should determine the cause. This problem may be resolved by providing more power, lowering the voltage drop, and using a soft-starting method. Several industrial devices can be easily tested for sensitivity using the sag generation apparatus.

Voltage sag reduction

Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), constant voltage transformers (CVT), and solid-state sag correction devices are common power line conditioning technologies. The location of a machine affects its voltage sag sensitivity. Increasing wire size can reduce voltage drop when the wiring is to blame. The plant service entrance can often be used as an entry point for sag correction devices, such as on the control panel, at the machine level, or at the bus level. During voltage drops, momentary power blackouts, and extended power outages, UPS devices provide protection.

Power quality: A relationship-based challenge

Power quality and the ability to reduce the need for reliability and dependability must be understood in order to solve problems. Assuring PQ’s impact on operating facilities, and minimizing the costs of solving problems, requires an understanding of its relationships. Power quality problems are typically caused by the addition of new, more sensitive devices to an existing plant, not by a change in the power coming from the utility. A manufacturer knows the relationship between raw materials and the finished product. Why would a manufacturer losing $100,000 per year to scrap, misdirected labor, and lost production not spend half as much to stop these losses?

If you’re looking for the best place to get your power supplies, you’re in the right place! EP-Power together with TREK AND MONROEaims to give you a total commitment to ensure the best quality and provide first-class products and services.

For inquiries, you may send us an email at: or give us a call at +6564547877.